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Table of Contents

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Preface

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Acknowledgments

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**Section 1: The Big Picture**

1. Issues and Tensions in the Assessment of Mathematical Proficiency,
by **Alan H. Schoenfeld**, 3-15

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2. Aims of Mathematics Education,
by **Judith A. Ramaley**, 17-21

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3. The No Child Left Behind Act: Political Context and National Goals,
by **Susan Sclafani**, 23-27

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**Section 2: Perspectives on Mathematical Proficiency**

4. What Is Mathematical Proficiency?
by **R. James Milgram**, 31-58

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5. What Is Mathematical Proficiency and How Can It Be Assessed?
by **Alan H. Schoenfeld**, 59-73

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**Section 3: What Does Assessment Assess? Issues and Examples**

6. Mathematical Proficiency: What Is Important? How Can It Be Measured?
by **Hugh Burkhardt**, 77-97

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7. Aspects of the Art of Assessment Design,
by **Jan de Lange**, 99-111

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8. Mathematical Proficiency for Citizenship,
by **Bernard L. Madison**, 111-124

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9. Learning from Assessment,
by **Richard Askey**, 125-136

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10. When Assessment Guides Instruction: Silicon Valley's Mathematics Assessment Collaborative,
by **David Foster, Pendred Noyce, and Sara Spiegel**, 137-154

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**Section 4: The Case of Algebra**

11. Assessing the Strands of Student Proficiency in Elementary Algebra,
by **William G. McCallum**, 157-162

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12. Making Meaning in Algebra: Examining Students' Understandings and Misconceptions,
by **David Foster**, 163-176

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13. Task Context and Assessment,
by **Ann Shannon**, 177-191

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**Section 5: What Do Assessments Assess? The Case of Fractions**

14. Learning About Fractions from Assessment,
by **Linda Fisher**, 195-211

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15. Assessing a Student's Mathematical Knowledge by Way of Interview,
by **Deborah Loewenberg Ball with Brandon Peoples**, 213-267

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16. Reflections on an Assessment Interview: What a Close Look at
Student Understanding Can Reveal,
by **Alan H. Schoenfeld**, 269-277

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**Section 6: The Importance of Societal Context**

17. Assessment in France,
by **Michèle Artigue**, 283-309

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18. Assessment to Improve Learning in Mathematics: The BEAR Assessment System,
by **Mark Wilson and Claus Carstensen**, 311-332

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19. English Learners and Mathematics Learning: Language Issues to Consider,
by **Lily Wong Fillmore**, 333-344

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20. Beyond Words to Mathematical Content: Assessing English
Learners in the Mathematics Classroom,
by **Judit Moschkovich**, 345-352

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21. Assessment in the Real World: The Case of New York City,
by **Elizabeth Taleporos**, 345-355

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22. Perspectives on State Assessments in California:
What You Release Is What Teachers Get,
by **Elizabeth K. Stage**, 357-363

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**Epilogue: What Do We Need to Know? Items for a Research Agenda**, 365-367

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**About the Authors**, 369-379

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Subject Index

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Author Index

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Task Index

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