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B. H. Matzat and M. van der Put introduce differential Galois theory and solve the differential inverse Galois problem over global fields in positive characteristic; D. Harbater gives a comparative exposition of formal and rigid patching starting from the familiar complex case. S. Mochizuki discusses aspects of Grothendieck's famous anabelian geometry, while the articles by R. Guralnick, A. Tamagawa, and F. Pop and M. Saïdi investigate the structure of the fundamental groups of curves over different kinds of characteristic p fields. M. Imbert and L. Schneps study the structure of the Hurwitz spaces and moduli spaces of curves, which are of great importance to Galois theory because of the Galois action on their fundamental groups. The first interesting such group is SL2(Z), a family of special subgroups of which is studied by F. Bogomolov and Y. Tschinkel. Finally, R. Hain and M. Matsumoto present their result proving part of a conjecture by Deligne on the structure of the Lie algebra associated to the Galois action on the fundamental group of the thrice-punctured projective plane.